How to make out a word?
Russian language is very versatile and difficult to learn. It has many nuances and features, one of which is the analysis of words. Before you make out a word, you need to know what vocabulary is. We note immediately that in the school curriculum lexical analysis of words is provided only at the level of an optional, but not mandatory program. As you know, teachers of regional schools are not too eager to conduct extracurricular activities; therefore, current schoolchildren will most likely not know the correctness of their words in accordance with the vocabulary.
Under the vocabulary understand all the words of a particular language, for example, Russian or French. It is impossible to reliably count how many words the vocabulary of each language combines. This phenomenon can be explained logically, because the vocabulary of a particular language is constantly updated with new words, however, as some words leave it. If approximately in modern Russian there are a little more than 130 thousand words, then for daily use a person needs no more than 1.5 thousand words.And this does not mean at all that a literate person has a vocabulary of only 1500 words, because many words we know are rarely used.
Lexicology - the science that studies vocabulary, divides all the words of the Russian language into an active and passive dictionary. The most used words are components of the active dictionary. Naturally, the passive dictionary is composed of words that are least used by modern man, that is, of obsolete words (archaisms), terms and neologisms (words that have appeared recently in the language).
According to lexicology, there are five styles of speech in the language - artistic, business and publicistic, colloquial and scientific. In accordance with lexicology, the whole speech is divided into three types - description, narration and reasoning. Now let's get down to breaking the word.
Parsing words as parts of speech
What needs to be done if you are faced with a task: disassemble a word as part of speech? To begin with, determine which part of speech a word belongs to, that is, it is a noun, adjective, verb, or other part of speech.Next, you should find the indefinite form of the word, its original sound. If a word refers to a noun, then its original sound is a nominative singular, for verbs it is an infinitive form.
Consider the analysis of the noun by the example of the word "hares". Its unchanged sound is "hare". We define the case, gender and number "hares" - the dative case, this word is masculine in the plural. This noun is a household name, since “hares” is not the name of anything. The noun may still be proper, but not in our case.
Consider the adjective using the example of the word "fluffy". In unchanged sound, it looks like the word "fluffy." To determine the gender, number and case, you need to focus in the context on the noun. For example, in the phrase "fluffy carpet" the word "fluffy" has the masculine gender, the instrumental case and the singular.
For example, the word "did" try to parse the verb as part of speech. His original sound is "do." Now it is necessary to determine the gender and conjugation, the face and appearance (it can be imperfect or perfect), the number and time of the verb, the moodThis is the third person of the masculine gender, in the singular and indicative moods, in an imperfect form and in the past tense, the second conjugation.
For example, the word "him" consider the pronoun. In the unchanged sound "he" is "he." Now we define the face and gender of the pronoun, its case and number. The pronoun "him" has a single number and masculine gender, dative, third person.
Considering the union, you should know that it can be connecting, dividing, composing or subordinating. Some alliances are of two types, for example, the union "a", depending on the context, can be either composing or separative.
Lexical analysis of the word
Having answered the question of how to parse an adjective as part of speech, a noun and other parts of speech, let us proceed to the lexical analysis of words. For this, it is necessary to carry out their detailed analysis by performing a specific algorithm:
- Type of lexical meaning in this context (direct or figurative meaning). If the word is used in this context in a figurative sense, then it is necessary to characterize the kind of figurative meaning.
- Specify the uniqueness / ambiguity of the word (you can use the dictionary of the Russian language). If a word has several meanings, then all of them must be specified.
- Mark the origin of the word - indicate whether the word is native Russian or is borrowed from another language (with the name of the language indicated).
- Determine the presence of synonyms and antonyms (build a synonymous series and find an antonymic pair for this word).
- Determine which vocabulary the word is in - common or limited (indicate that this word is outdated or neologism).
- Determine the phraseological connection of the word.
Example of lexical analysis of the word
Using the example of the phrase: “Having completed our operations, the fronts stopped at the reached lines” we will consider how to disassemble the word “operations”.
- Operation - strategic actions that are carried out in offensive or defensive battles (military, prof.).
- The word belongs to the category of multi-valued words: a) surgical operation; b) trading; c) postal operations; d) financial transaction.
- Used in this context in the literal sense.
- “Operation” is a word of foreign origin. It is borrowed from the Latin language.
- Synonyms - operation, military operations, battle, battle.
- The word "operation" is actively used in Russian.
- The word refers to military terminology, that is, is part of professional vocabulary.
Parsing words by composition
Parsing words by composition is one of the most popular in school. All schoolchildren learn Russian to learn words according to the composition. If you have problems with this, we will help you. How to make out a word by composition? Here is what algorithm is best to act:
- Determine the right part of speech, which will disassemble the composition. This will help the context.
- Highlight the ending in the word (for examples of the notation for parts of the word, see the picture before the article). This is a variable part of a word, usually at the end, behind the suffix. Identify the ending in a word is easy - you just need to change the word by case and see which part at the end of the word changes. That it will be the end. Example: in the word "cow" the ending is "a". When it declines, we get the following forms: cows, cows, cows, etc. It can be seen that the letter “a” in the word is constantly changing to others in different cases, therefore, “a” is the ending.There are words with a zero ending, for example, "wolf", "telephone", "ballet". In such cases, the end icon is placed next to the word after it. It is important not to confuse the ending with the suffix!
- Next, you should select the prefix. The prefix is a part of the word that stands before the root, it gives the word additional meaning. For example, there is the word "ride", and there is the word "eat out." The prefix "c" to the second word gives a sense of completeness, therefore the second verb has a perfect look, and the first is imperfect. The prefix is usually located at the very beginning of the word, so it is not difficult to detect it, if it exists.
- Then select the suffix. The suffix is the variable part of a word that is located after the root. There can be one, several suffixes in a word, or they may not exist at all. For example, in the word "peas" the suffix "Ik", in the word "made" two suffixes - the verb "a" and the suffix of the participle "vsh".
- Now highlight the root of the word. The root is the unchangeable part of a word (however, the roots can alternate: “pick up” - the root is “bir”, “pick it up” - the root is “ber”). The root carries the main meaning of the word. There are words entirely composed of the root: forest, onion, house, vegetable garden.In the word "girl" there will be the root of "girls", in the word "self-tapping screw" there are two roots that carry the meaning: "himself" and "cut", the letter "o" is a connecting vowel between the roots. If you doubt the selection of the root, select the words with the same root and see which part of the word they most often repeat. She will be the root of the word.
- And finally, the basis of the word. It includes all parts of the word, except for the end and formative suffixes. Formative suffixes include the suffix "be" in indefinite verbs, the suffix "l" in past tense verbs, the "i" in adverbial adverbs, "cracks" and "yushch" in participles and suffixes in adjectives and adverbs in comparative and superlative degree ("e", "her", "eish", "aish"). The base is highlighted at the bottom of the word in the form of a line that underlines everything that enters into it.
Examples of parsing words by composition
How to make out a word by composition, you now know. To consolidate the material we consider several examples of the analysis of words according to the composition:
- Gone. The main meaning of the word is contained in the root "ex". We look in front of the root console. The prefix "pona" in Russian is not, but there is a prefix "on" and "on" (there are words gone, drove).Therefore, in this word two prefixes: "by" and "on". Enjoying suffixes. This word also has two suffixes - a verb "a" and a suffix of past tense verbs "l". The ending of the word is - and. The basis of the word "ponaheali" - "ponaeha".
- Lumberjack A lumberjack is one who cuts wood. Since the meaning of the word is revealed in two words, and the word itself is one, then, most likely, it contains two roots. This word has two roots: "forest" and "rub." "O" between them is not a suffix, it is a connecting vowel, in school it is usually distinguished in a frame or in parentheses. The word begins immediately with the root "forest", there are no prefixes here. There are also no suffixes and endings, so after the word we draw a blank ending badge, which will mean a zero ending. The basis of the word: "lumberjack".
- Beautiful The root is “handsome”, the superlative suffix “eish”, the ending is “iy”. The basis of the word - "beautiful."
- Be. The root "would", the suffix "be". The basis of the word - "to".
We looked at how to make out a word by its composition using examples.
Acting on the above examples, you can easily disassemble the verb as part of speech, be able to conduct lexical analysis of the word and analysis of the word according to the composition.This knowledge will be useful not only for schoolchildren and students, but also for adults who are striving to improve their skills and knowledge in the field of Russian language.