Symptoms and treatment of depression
Depression, formerly called melancholia, is accompanied by three disorders: mood, thinking, and movement. Society underestimates the seriousness of the problem, but it is a serious pathology. It interferes with the full life of a sick person, his close relatives and friends. At the beginning of the 21st century, doctors noted a decrease in the age of sick people, which is explained by the rapid pace of life, violation of work and rest, unhealthy diet and some other factors. Let's try to figure out what are the symptoms of depression and how to deal with it.
Causes of Depression
Like any disease, depression does not occur unexpectedly. Over a period of time, individual for each situation, it develops and gradually changes not only consciousness, but also physical condition. Depending on the factors affecting the formation of the pathological condition, there are two types of disease.
Reactive depression, characterized by a short time interval during which negative changes occur.It is provoked by external stimuli that cause a person to experience acute emotions. These situations include:
loss of a loved one
divorce or wedding,
change of social status or work,
birth of a child,
change of residence,
natural disasters and similar factors.
Endogenous depression, gradually developing under the influence of internal processes occurring in the human body. The basis for the appearance of this species is as follows:
endocrine, neurological and other diseases,
taking some drugs
violation of the daily routine,
reduced physical activity
alcohol and drug abuse.
Causes of depression affect treatment directly. External and internal factors are eliminated in different ways, which is important when starting therapy. Do not wait for the disease to pass by yourself. To a greater extent this refers to the endogenous species. Without competent psychotherapeutic or medical correction, the condition may worsen and the occurrence of concomitant diseases.
Symptoms of depression
The initial stage of the disease is easily confused with fatigue, beriberi, premenstrual syndrome and other conditions that do not require serious medical intervention. However, common symptoms of depression are identified that should be addressed. They are divided into four groups:
Emotional: depressed mood, sadness, longing, irritability, heavy presentiments. A person suffers from a lowered self-esteem and a sense of his own insolvency, is engaged in self-sinking and self-fricking. Suicidal thoughts come to mind. There is a constant concern for the life and health of loved ones.
Behavioral: the desire for self-isolation, reduction of social activity, loss of interest in others, the development of alcoholism and drug addiction.
Physiological: sleep and appetite disorder, decreased sexual desire, permanent fatigue, muscle weakness, weak pain in the abdomen, back, heart area.
Thoughtful: inability to perform familiar actions, reduced concentration of attention, inhibited reactions to external stimuli, pessimistic thoughts, loss of meaning in life.
The symptoms of depression in men also include aggression and outbursts of anger, or, conversely, a complete immersion in internal experiences. The latter represents a great danger, since it often leads to a suicide attempt. In women, the disease is accompanied by tearfulness, fluctuations in body weight, development of bulimia and anorexia due to dissatisfaction with one's own body. Due to the “rejuvenation” of this disorder, more and more young people are experiencing signs of depression. Symptoms in adolescents are not much different from common manifestations, but at an early age the pathological state is much more often accompanied by thoughts of suicide and encourages a person to seek consolation in alcohol, drugs and immersion in youth subcultures.
In a separate chapter it is worth describing the symptoms of postpartum depression. Often, in happy and joyful moments of life, to which the birth of an heir belongs, an alarming and tearful state arises. Studies show that 15% of women suffer from this in the first days after birth. On the second day of the woman's labor, hormonal changes occur that disrupt the proper functioning of the nervous system.By the fourth day, when discharge from the maternity hospital takes place, these fluctuations reach a peak. Therefore, being in a familiar environment, but in an unusual role for herself, the woman experiences unpleasant feelings.
Fear for the newborn, fear of harm to it and the inability to properly serve the child join the natural changes in the body. This fully applies to women who have become mothers for the first time, and those who have experienced difficult labor. With a normal postpartum period during the month, the state returns to normal, the baby and mother get used to each other, and fears recede into the background. If it is impossible to cope with anxiety, the likelihood of depression is great. The disease can be recognized by the following factors:
Disorders of sleep and appetite.
Loss of sense of time.
Inability to solve household problems.
Decrease in libido up to complete disgust for the partner.
Panic attacks, hysterical manifestations.
Painful sensations of unclear etiology in the stomach, back, head.
Treatment of depression
Doctors still do not agree on a single method of treating depression.There are cases that are subject to correction without the use of drugs. Unfortunately, such situations are rare, so when identifying symptoms of depression, it is not necessary to postpone contacting a medical professional to prescribe appropriate therapy. More often it consists of a combination of several methods. The following treatment methods are currently available:
The treatment complex may include:
Acupuncture, magnetotherapy and some types of manual massage.
Sports and physical therapy.
Phototherapy, music therapy, art therapy.
Yoga and meditation.
A positive outcome of the disease depends on the mood of the patient. During the period of therapy and rehabilitation, negative thoughts should be avoided, to adjust the mode of the day and nutrition, to communicate with family and friends in a positive way. Self-treatment of depression implies an extremely positive view of the world and the implementation of prescribed procedures. At this difficult moment, the whole family comes to the rescue.Critical remarks about a depressed person are unacceptable, because at that time he still suffers from low self-esteem. When communicating, tips on how to get out of this state, manifestations of love and empathy are preferable.
Medical treatment of depression
Some people avoid taking pharmacological drugs, but with severe psychological pathologies this is a necessary measure. Drug treatment of depression is prescribed by a doctor, and the scheme is selected depending on the severity of the disease. An independent use of psychotropic drugs, even those sold in pharmacies without a prescription, is unacceptable.
For the treatment of depression in women and men, antidepressants are used in individual dosages. In adolescence, sparing drugs are used, or the daily dose is reduced. In the process of taking antidepressants, the symptoms of depression are reduced, and if the recommendations of the attending physician are followed, they disappear. Most often, the first thing that comes back to normal is sleep. Nightmares, nightly alarms and unreasonable awakenings are leaving. Reduced irritability and tearfulness, improves mood and physical condition of the body.To achieve a stable result, a course of at least two months is necessary, sometimes it lasts a year. In this case, the first improvements are noticeable after one or two weeks.
In severe and complex cases, tranquilizers or benzodiazepines are used. They are related to narcotic substances, therefore they are used in a hospital. For home treatment, drugs are purchased in limited quantities on prescription. Funds with such a strong effect are prescribed at the beginning of the treatment of depression, until antidepressants begin to show themselves to the full. After reaching the therapeutic effect, tranquilizers are canceled. Reception of such drugs is addictive, which is highly undesirable. This complicates the course of depression and can become a separate disease.
Physiotherapy treatment of depression
Electroconvulsive therapy is used for the treatment of advanced, prolonged or recurrent depression. This is an aggressive method of treatment, and the appointment is justified in the event of the ineffectiveness of the drugs. As the name implies, the procedure is based on the effect of electric current.As it passes through the brain, convulsive states occur for two to three seconds. As a result, there is a release of substances that positively affect mood and psychological state.
The softer methods of physiotherapy include electric. Pulses of low frequency current are fed to the brain and start the braking process. This effect improves sleep, soothes and increases blood flow to the tissues. The process of darsonvalization is also effective, that is, the application of a fast-damping high-frequency current of small strength. Its effect on the scalp relaxes, improves blood circulation and nutrition of the brain. In addition to these methods, manual and apparatus massage and oxygen therapy are referred to physiotherapy treatment of depression. The latter is carried out in a special chamber and helps to saturate the brain cells with oxygen.
Psychotherapeutic treatment of depression
In mild and moderate forms of depression, and in the detection of concomitant personality disorders, psychotherapy shows high efficiency. The full result is achieved with a combination of pharmacological therapy and conversations with a doctor of the respective specialization.The psychotherapist helps to understand the cause of the painful condition, identify problems that require an early solution and reveal the extent of the defeat of the psyche. Scientifically confirmed the positive impact of the three approaches of psychotherapy:
Psychodynamic, based on the identification and resolution of intrapersonal conflicts.
Behavioral, aimed at eliminating behavioral disorders and awareness of motivation for lifestyle changes.
Cognitive, combining both of these techniques. This method is more effective because it simultaneously eliminates internal problems and their external manifestations.
As additional methods of influence used family counseling. During therapy, work with family members and building interpersonal relationships takes place, since it is difficult to overestimate the value of established relationships with loved ones. On the positive side, group sessions, designed specifically to help people with depressive disorders, have proven themselves. Stories and reviews of comrades in misfortune can shorten the period of drug treatment of depression.
For preventive purposes, a set of measures is applied that can protect against depression or reduce its manifestations. The basis of this complex is constant participation in public and private life. A person who has no empty time experiences a full range of emotions during the day. Because of this, he is much less prone to depressive disorders than a person isolated from society and engaged in continuous self-digging. Of course, everyone needs time for proper rest. This period can last as long as necessary for the full restoration of physical and mental resources. In addition, here are a number of good habits that can prevent the occurrence of the disease:
Balanced good nutrition.
Physical activity and sports.
Communicating with nice people, making new acquaintances and maintaining old contacts.
Compliance with sleep patterns, prevention of insomnia.
Being in the fresh air, airing housing.
Hobbies, hobbies and interesting demand specialty.
Elimination of alcohol, drugs and smoking.
If you find yourself in the symptoms of depression, entrust treatment to the doctor. Do not use psychotropic drugs on the recommendation of friends, because such therapy will not bring the desired effect. In addition, some prescription drugs cause severe psychological and physical dependence, which will complicate further treatment of depression.
So, we have analyzed the symptoms and treatment of depression in women, men and adolescents. In general, they are similar, so it’s not too difficult to determine the onset of the disease in yourself or close people.