What are the authorities?
Today, without government bodies, the work of the state apparatus of our country is not conceivable. They are the central link around which powers are exercised. Let's consider which government bodies exist.
Characteristics of state bodies. authorities
Government bodies are levers through which the people, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, can exercise their authority. The public authorities are characterized by the following features:
- have state authority
- are created and work in the manner prescribed by the state
- vested with state powers to perform state functions of the Russian Federation
- are one of the parts of the general system of state authorities of Russia
If we consider all government agencies in the aggregate, then it can be noted that they constitute a single system. The Constitution states that this system consists of the authorities of the Russian Federation and its subjects.It is this unified system based on the integrity of Russia and the unity of the authorities of the subjects of the Federation. In addition, the unity of the system is manifested in the fact that the subjects of reference, as well as powers, are delimited between the organs of state. Russian authorities and regional authorities. State power in Russia in accordance with the Constitution is exercised by the President, the Federal Assembly, and the courts of the Russian Federation. These types of government bodies form their own unique system, which, in turn, is divided into several other subsystems.
According to the Constitution, the President is not an integral part of any branch of government. It ensures the coherence of actions of other authorities and monitors the implementation of their tasks. He also supervises the work of the Government and signs legislation that is of paramount importance throughout the country.
Three branches of power
Now let's look at what government bodies today are in the state. First of all, the legislative bodies are the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, various people's assemblies, dumas, legislative assemblies, regional assemblies and other people's bodies whose members are elected by popular vote.The combination of all the above regional bodies is a system of representative bodies of our country. In addition, legislative bodies can be divided into regional and federal.
If we talk about the executive authorities, then they include the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as the executive authorities of the territorial units, that is, the subjects of the Federation. The types of state authorities of the subjects of this category are the heads of administrations and presidents of the republics, governors, governments and various government departments and committees. They form a single integral system of organ executive authority of the Russian Federation. It is headed by the Government of the Russian Federation. The main characteristic of the executive authorities is that they are created in an orderly manner by the leaders - the administration or the President of the relevant territorial unit. The activities of executive bodies are only of a managerial and executive nature. Similarly to legislative bodies, executive authorities can be divided into federal and regional.
As for the third branch of government - the judiciary, it consists of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the courts of the subjects. All organs of justice constitute a single judicial system of the country. A feature of this category of power is the exercise of power through administrative, civil and criminal proceedings.
There is also a special group of state authorities, which is not included in any of the branches of government - the Prosecutor's Office. According to the Constitution, it consists of a centralized system, subordinate to the Attorney General. The main activity of the Prosecutor's Office is to oversee the implementation of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of administration and public service. Thus, we considered which bodies exercise state power.
Since Russia is a federal state, the power in it is divided not only horizontally, but also vertically. Similar government bodies exist in each of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, but at the same time they are subject to higher authorities.
Subject matters of jurisdiction controlled by federal and regional authorities have a strict distinction in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. However, individual subjects, according to the Basic Law, are given privileged powers. In addition, it is the Constitution that enshrines the fact that the subjects can independently form their own authorities and legislate certain orders.
As for the legislative bodies of power, in the subjects they are meetings, dumas, etc. They possess an unlimited legislative initiative within their region. The executive bodies of the subject are the Administrations and governments, which are headed by the Presidents, Governors and Heads of Administrations. The first deputy governor is very often also the head of the government. The executive power system consists of territorial authorities, which are created directly by the head of the Administration.
In each subject of the Russian Federation, legislative bodies may have a different name, but they are all united by the fact that all members of the legislative assembly are elected by a vote of four years.
In the judicial branch of state bodies at the regional level, we can distinguish the regional courts and regional courts, which operate in accordance with regional legislation and are not included in the system of courts of general jurisdiction. Thus, we considered what the authorities are on a regional scale.
Subjects of reference
The subjects of the regional and federal authorities are strictly delimited in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, however, there are such matters that constitute joint subjects of competence. In this case, the regional authority may, at its discretion, choose the method of regulating a particular issue.
State authorities are the main mechanism of statehood in Russia. Depending on which authorities exist in the state and what role they play in society, it can be said whether the state is legal.