What is angina?
Angina mainly occurs in people of mature age. It occurs most often in men (5-20%). In women, this disease is less common (1-10%) and, as a rule, does not manifest itself for a long time.
Let's talk more about what is angina.
Angina Pectoris: Definition and Causes
Angina pectoris - attacks of sudden chest pain, which are manifested due to an acute lack of blood supply to the myocardium. It is a clinical form of coronary heart disease. Angina can cause heart failure, so it is important to start treatment as soon as possible.
Most often the development of stenocardia provokes atherosclerosis, which contributes to the narrowing of the coronary vessels. Less commonly, such a disease causes angiospasm, allergies, infections, pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, rheumatism. Also provoke the occurrence of angina can:
- psychoemotional stress.
Symptoms of angina pectoris
According to the international classification of angina is divided into tense and spontaneous. The following symptoms of angina can be distinguished:
- feelings of heaviness, burning, squeezing and bursting of the chest;
- pain extending to the neck, left arm or shoulder blade, lower jaw, upper abdomen;
- shortness of breath (feeling short of breath);
- increased sweating;
- heart palpitations.
When angina pain attack lasts no more than 15 minutes. As a rule, it occurs during physical exertion, including walking. Often, the pain begins due to excessive intake of food or cold wind. You can get rid of pain by taking Nitroglycerin (put under the tongue).
Diagnosis of the disease
It is important to know that an attack of angina can lead to myocardial infarction. It causes other complications - cardiosclerosis and chronic heart failure. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose the disease as soon as possible. To do this, prescribe tests: diagnosis involves the study of blood for ALT, AST, cholesterol, density, the amount of glucose, electrolytes and triglycerides. Important in the diagnosis is the determination of troponin I and T markers, as they may indicate damage to the myocardium.
Be sure to prescribe an ECG.As a rule, this procedure is carried out during the day. This allows you to record changes in the work of the heart, to identify arrhythmia and other pathologies. In addition, ECG helps to classify angina, as well as to identify local ischemic changes.
Additionally, the following procedures can be assigned:
- bicycle ergometry;
- coronary angiography.
Treatment of angina pectoris
The main goal of treatment is the relief of angina. It also aims to prevent seizures and the development of complications. For this purpose, a comprehensive drug therapy, which involves taking anti-ischemic drugs. They are designed to ensure that the heart muscle consumes less oxygen. Calcium channel blockers, β-blockers and prolonged-acting nitrates are also prescribed. It is advisable to use and anti-sclerotic drugs, antiplatelet agents and antioxidants. At the same time, optimal medical therapy is selected exclusively by a doctor based on the results of the examination.
The patient should always be on hand "Nitroglycerin." This drug must be slowly absorbed.Relief after taking it comes in a few minutes. If the attacks continue, you need to dissolve another pill with an interval of three minutes. If after this improvement does not follow, then you should call an ambulance as soon as possible, since it is possible the occurrence of a heart attack.