What is the norm of testosterone for women?
In the human body produces a variety of hormones. And if some are among the representatives of both sexes, then others are considered purely feminine or masculine. And can testosterone be detected in the female body? And if so, what is its normal level?
What is this hormone?
Testosterone is considered by many to be exclusively a male hormone. And partly this is true, because it is he who determines the sex differences and makes the representatives of the stronger sex as they should be. For example, he is responsible for the formation of secondary sexual characteristics and characteristics of the male body, such as hair growth on the torso and face, increase in muscle mass, voice coarseness.
Testosterone can also influence behavior, introducing into it a share of aggression, competitive spirit and other habits, provided by nature itself for conquering the opposite sex and, accordingly, for continuing the race.
But can testosterone be present in the female body? Not only can, but should, but it is produced by the ovaries and partially by the adrenal cortex. But it performs other functions and is contained in much smaller quantities.And there are certain rules, deviations from which can signal about various problems.
What functions does testosterone perform in the female body?
Testosterone is responsible for several important functions:
- Impact on fertility. Testosterone is involved in the process of maturation of follicles, that is, determines the ability of a woman to conceive and increases the chances of successful fertilization.
- Ensuring the normal structure of the bone apparatus. Without testosterone, bones would be fragile due to a decrease in the density of their tissues.
- Proper formation and strengthening of the muscles. Testosterone has the most direct effect on a person’s muscles, ensures its harmonious development and correct functioning.
- Regulation of the activity of sebaceous glands. This function is also important, because it affects the state of the skin of the woman and, accordingly, on her appearance.
- Impact on mood and emotional state. In case of deviations from the norm, sharp drops and instability can be observed, which will affect the woman's behavior.
- Sexual behavior, libido and sex appeal.If there was no testosterone in the female body, the representatives of the weaker sex would not feel welcome, would avoid men and would not feel attracted, which would certainly affect both the continuation of the race and life in general.
Testosterone can be common, bound and free. Total is the total amount of the hormone contained in the body. Bound testosterone is bound to blood proteins, and its activity in such compounds is minimal (it can increase when the bonds are broken, that is, released). Free testosterone is more active because it is not combined with blood components. And it is his level that is usually determined at the time of the analysis.
What is the rate of testosterone for women? It depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle, physical condition and even on the time of day. So, usually the maximum concentrations are observed in the morning, in the evening the level is significantly reduced. Its increase can be observed after physical exertion. In addition, the rates may vary in different laboratories, as they depend on the sensitivity used to determine the amount of reagents.
Normal values for women and girls over 10 years old are in the range of 0.45-3.75 nmol / l. Average values usually range from 0.3 to 3.18-3.20 pg / ml. In the follicular phase, the level is usually about 0.45-3.18 pg / ml. During ovulation, that is, the luteal phase, normal values do not exceed 0.46-2.5 pg / ml. After menstruation, the level drops to 0.3-1.72 pg / ml.
Important: a significant increase can be observed in the period of gestation, and sometimes the level differs from the normal one several times.
And this is due to the fact that after conception such a hormone begins to be produced not only by the adrenal glands and ovaries, but also by the placenta. And by the end of the term of pregnancy in small quantities it is synthesized by the fetus, so that in the last months it can reach its peak.
Elevated testosterone levels can occur in the following cases:
- genetic predisposition, that is, heredity;
- periods of ovulation and gestation;
- neoplasms localized in the tissues of the ovaries, for example, tumors or cysts;
- taking certain medication, for example, hormonal oral contraceptives;
- hyperplasia of adrenal cortex tissue;
- excessive exercise;
- incorrect eating behavior, unhealthy food.
If testosterone levels are elevated, the following symptoms may signal this:
- changes in behavior, for example, causeless manifestations of aggression, outbursts of anger, irritability;
- failures of the menstrual cycle: delay or absence of menstruation;
- increased physical activity;
- increased activity of the sebaceous glands and, as a result, an increase in the fat content of the skin;
- decrease in voice timbre, its coarsening;
- increased clitoris size;
- changing the figure, for example, reducing the volume of the chest, buttocks or thighs (the body acquires masculine features);
- hair growth on the chest or face;
- the appearance of acne on the skin of the face;
- increased sexual attraction, manifestations of hypersexuality.
An increased level of testosterone can lead to unpleasant consequences, among which violations of the organs of the reproductive system, including infertility.
The main causes of low testosterone levels are:
- renal failure;
- sharp changes in body weight (both decrease and excess weight);
- Down syndrome;
- menopause or menopause;
- bad habits such as excessive drinking and smoking;
- unbalanced nutrition (in particular, lack of carbohydrates and fats);
- ovarian dysfunction;
- severe stress.
Determine a reduced level of testosterone by the following symptoms:
- chronic fatigue, apathy, fatigue, weakness, decreased physical activity;
- excessive sweating;
- decrease in muscle volume, and without cause;
- decreased libido.
A decrease in testosterone levels can lead to such effects as osteoporosis, diabetes, breast cancer, heart disease or blood vessels, uterine fibroids, and so on.
How to normalize?
First of all, it is necessary to find out the causes of deviations from the norm and to eliminate them. Hormonal preparations may be prescribed for correction. Thus, with increasing levels, Prednisolone, Diane 35, Digostin, Dexamethasone, Metipred are recommended. If the amount is reduced, the doctor can advise the use of such drugs as "Evo-Test", "Parity", "Omnadren". But any funds can be appointed only by a specialist! Self-medication and uncontrolled reception are extremely harmful and dangerous!
Women's health and balance in the body to you!